Routine HIV screening among blood donors in Buenos Aires (Argentina): Results from six years' experience and report of a single window-period donation
ALEJANDRA GENDLER S, PASCUCCIO MS
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 2007;25(2): 82-90
Resumen del Autor:
<FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>Background. Blood donor HIV antibody detection has been mandatory in Argentina since 1991, and p24 antigen screening was recommended in 1997. <FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>Methods. A total of 30,132 consecutive donations were screened. Repeatedly reactive samples were tested by another screening test and/or by Western blot (WB) for HIV Ab, or by a neutralization assay for p24 Ag. <FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>Results. Among the total, 0.3623% of samples were repeatedly reactive and 0.2084% were true HIV-infected donors. Only one donor tested nonreactive for HIV Ab, repeatedly reactive for p24 Ag, positive by neutralization assay, and seroconverted later. Samples with a signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio ≥<FONT FACE="MathematicalPi 1" SIZE=2> <FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>3.00 on routine HIV Ab testing were 100.0% positive by WB and/or repeatedly reactive
by the second test. In samples with a S/CO ratio < 3.00, 11.1% were positive by WB and/or the majority were nonreactive by the second test. Among HIV-infected donors, 89.5% possessed risk factors (which had been denied previously), 56.5% were repeatedly reactive by other screening procedures and 88.6% were coinfected with other blood-transmissible viruses. <FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>Conclusions. When the EIA S/CO ratio is ≥<FONT FACE="MathematicalPi 1" SIZE=2> <FONT FACE="Univers 65 Bold" SIZE=2>3.00, WB can be replaced by a second screening test. The pre-donation questionnaire should be improved to detect risk behavior in prospective donors. There was a high association between HIV and other blood-transmissible viruses.
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